Our Metal Forming Glossary
The Franklin Fasteners team has compiled common words and phrases in our metal-forming glossary to increase your familiarity and knowledge of the metal fabrication industry.
AISI stands for the American Iron and Steel Institute, and each carbon steel coil has a four-digit identification number. The first two numbers detail the grade of the steel, and the last two numbers indicate the amount of carbon in the steel.
American National Standards Institute
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a nonprofit organization that modifies, coordinates, and distributes the U.S. voluntary consensus standards and conformity assessment systems. The ANSI manages the safety regulations and standards for multiple industries.
A substance used to hold materials together through surface attachment.
An electrolyte that stores hydrogen ions and allows it to react with water; this acts as the opposite of a base.
This is the accumulation of molecules of a substance on the surface of a different substance. The molecules are attracted to the surface but do not enter the solid’s minute spaces.
A technique that involves feeding raw material into the stamping press die. This method typically features two air-powered gripping devices and an adjustable-stroke air cylinder.
Steel material that features a special level of cleanliness provided by magnetic particle testing.
A steel product that has additional elements that aren’t silicon, sulfur, manganese, or phosphorus.
A technique where metal is softened by heating and cooling the material, which improves machinability and reduces internal stresses.
The bend’s curved portion.
Base metal is the part that all other components are welded to.
Bill of Lading
The statement that arrives with a shipment of materials and details its physical characteristics, including grade, thickness, width, and weight.
The press’s friction mechanism that stops or controls the motion during the welding process.
The breakdown pass is the only section in the formation process where the roll tooling makes contact with the strip’s top and bottom.
A popular test where a hard steel ball is pressed into the material, then the diameter of the mark in the steel is measured and converted into a Brinell Hardness Number. A higher number demonstrates a stronger product.
This is a stamping press component that forms a shape resembling the letter C from the side view and leaves the front completely open.
A metal device that holds the coil and attaches to the crane hook. This product is shaped like a C and holds the material while the coil is moved by the crane.
This stands for computer-aided design and is the process where a computer program develops electronic copies of paper drawings.
The computer numerical control (CNC) is a designation for a machine that uses a computer to control the machine’s actions.
A cutting insert is a replaceable tool placed in the tool holder.
The changing of a metal’s form or shape because its plastic behavior is placed under stress.
The entire process in which a metal product is created using die engineering. This includes the planning stages where the part is analyzed to determine the die configuration and requirements.
Die maintenance is a regular process where a die’s operational capacity is verified to produce acceptable parts.
Distortion is any deviation from a material’s size, shape, or contour.
Downtime is any period where a machine is not operating when it should be. Tool setup, maintenance, or malfunctions are all common causes of downtime.
The maximum stress that can be applied to a tube without permanently deforming the material.
Elasticity is a material’s ability to return to its original form after removing stress.
This involves stretching sheet metal into a shallow depression to produce sunken or raised designs.
A paint known for its ability to form a smooth film
The maximum level of stress a material can endure during an infinite number of cycles.
This is when a material fractures under repeated or fluctuating stresses.
The surface condition that exists in the final product.
A break, rip, or tear in a material.
A stamping press method with a frame that resembles the letter C from the side view with the front completely open.
Grade details the type of metal being used.
Heat treating is the technique where a solid metal is heated and then cooled to obtain a specific condition or property. This also helps increase the material’s strength.
A category of steel products that feature a yield strength of over 40,000 PSI.
An impact test measures a metal’s resistance to a sudden impact force.
Ingot is the process where a solid block of steel is formed by pouring molten steel from a ladle into a mold before cooling and removal.
A cutting process that slices or cuts materials without producing a slug or separating the metal.
A welding method that uses a highly concentrated light beam to heat, pierce, and cut metal.
A sequence of stamping dies that perform operations on a material with manual assistance.
Describes the ease with which a material can be machined.
This is a roll of coiled steel from a mill split into narrower coils.
The movement, protection, storage, and control of metals during the manufacturing process.
The process where materials are examined to detect, measure, and evaluate defects.
This describes the direction of the surface pattern that remains after cutting, grinding, or other processes.
How much a pipe has to bend beyond the preferred angle to compensate for stresses.
A unit used to measure pressure, shorthand for pounds per square inch.
Pass is when an operator moves material through a stand of rolls in the tube mill.
A pressure die is a tool used in a rotary draw bend that keeps the pipe placed against the die.
Pressure Die Assist
A component that delivers force on the pipe during the bending process. The amount of force required depends on the friction levels in the interface of the die and pipe.
A welding process accomplished using robotic equipment.
A roll is a primary tool used in metal working processes. It’s mounted in weld tube mills and helps provide the necessary changes to the material’s shape.
The runout table is the material handling device that a component is transferred to after it has been cut to a specific length.
Scratches are imperfections caused when a hard, pointed object moves incorrectly.
A cutting process that separates metal material into two pieces using moving blades.
A cutting process that separates metal material into two pieces using moving blades. Surface roughness is a fine irregularity in the texture of the material usually resulting from the production process and measured in micrometers or microinches.
A heat-treating method that reduces brittleness and removes stresses and strains in steel material.
A process that features several die stations, each performing a different operation as the stock moves.
A weld pass is a single welding progression along a joint or substrate.
Welding is the process that joins two or more pieces of material by applying heat and pressure.
The yield point is the pressure level that permanently deforms the metal during bending.
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